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       水处理杀菌设备目前有三种设备,分别是臭氧、紫外线及二氧化氯杀菌设备。

     臭氧杀菌的原理是臭氧( O3 ) 是氧( O2 ) 的同素异形体, 纯净的O3 常温常压下为蓝色气体。臭氧具有很强的氧化能力( 仅次于氟), 能氧化大部分有机物。臭氧灭菌过程属物理、化学和生物反应。臭氧灭菌有以下三种作用:a. 臭氧能氧化分解细菌内部氧化葡萄糖所必需的酶, 使细菌灭活死亡。b. 直接与细菌、病毒作用, 破坏它们的细胞壁、DNA和 RNA, 细菌的新陈代谢受到破坏, 导致死亡( DNA—核糖核酸; RNA—脱氧核糖核酸。病毒是由蛋白质包裹着一种核酸的大分子; 病毒只含一种核酸)。c. 渗透胞膜组织, 侵入细胞膜内作用于外膜的脂蛋白和内部的脂多糖, 使细菌发生透性畸变, 溶解死亡。因此, O3 能够除藻杀菌, 对病毒、芽孢等生命力较强的微生物也能起到很好的灭活作用。臭氧是一种强氧化剂, 它具有高效无二次污染, 既能氧化有机物, 又能杀菌除色、嗅、味等特点, 可氧化铁、锰等物质, 通常认为它的氧化能力比氯高600倍~ 3 000 倍, 且接触时间短, 除能有效杀灭细菌以外, 对各种病毒和芽胞等生命力强的生物也有很大的杀伤效果。臭氧消毒不受污水中NH3 和pH 的影响, 而且其最终产物是二氧化碳和水, 不产生致癌物质。

    紫外线杀菌是一种物理消毒方法, 紫外线消毒并不是杀死微生物, 而是去掉其繁殖能力进行灭活。紫外线消毒的原理主要是用紫外光摧毁微生物的遗传物质核酸( DNA 或RNA ), 使其不能分裂复制。除此之外, 紫外线还可引起微生物其他结构的破坏。紫外线是一种波长范围为136 nm ~ 400 nm 的不可见光线。在该波段中260 nm 附近已被证实是杀菌效率最高的, 目前生产的紫外灯的最大功率输出在253. 7 nm 波长。该波长输出在目前世界顶极紫外灯中已占到紫外能量的90%, 总能量的30%, 由于高强度、高效率的紫外C 波段的存在, 紫外技术已成为水消毒领域一个具有相当竞争力的技术。紫外线污水消毒技术如今已被广泛应用于各类城市污水的消毒处理中, 包括低质污水、常规二级生化处理后的污水、合流管道溢流废水和再生水的消毒。紫外线消毒法除具有不投加化学药剂、不增加水的嗅和味、不产生有毒有害的副产物、消毒速度快、效率高、设备操作较传统消毒工艺安全简单和实现自动化等优点外, 运行、管理、劳务和维修费用也低, 近20 年来逐渐得到广泛应用。紫外线消毒工艺对紫外穿透率较低的水质并不适用, 如未经处理或只经过一级处理的污水, SS高于30 m g /L的污水。这种情况采用紫外线消毒的方式不但会增加能耗, 还会造成消毒效果不好。而对于经过二级处理的污水和再生水, 紫外穿透率一般为40% ~ 80%, 采用紫外线消毒方式是不错的选择。但是紫外线消毒法不能提供剩余的消毒能力, 当处理水离开反应器之后, 一些被紫外线杀伤的微生物在光复活机制下会修复损伤的DNA分子, 使细菌再生。

    二氧化氯在水中溶解度是氯的5倍, 氧化能力是氯气的2. 5倍左右, 它是一种强氧化剂。溶于水后很安全, 是国际上公认的含氯消毒中唯一高效消毒剂。二氧化氯性质不稳定, 只能采用二氧化氯发生器现场制备。用于水处理领域的小型化学法二氧化氯发生器主要有两种: 以氯酸钠、盐酸为原料的复合型二氧化氯发生器和以亚氯酸钠、盐酸为原料的纯二氧化氯发生器, 其中前者应用最为广泛二氧化氯消毒的特点是只起氧化作用, 不起氯化作用, 因而一般不会产生致癌物质。二氧化氯的消毒效果与氯气相当, 但当污水中NH3 N 浓度较高时, 耗氯量会大幅度增加, 但二氧化氯由于不与NH3 反应, 因而其投加量并不增加。另外, 二氧化氯消毒还不受pH 的干扰。二氧化氯不稳定且具有爆炸性, 因而必须在现场制造, 立即使用。制备含氯低的二氧化氯较复杂, 且原料 ( NaClO2 ) 的价格较其他消毒方法高, 故限制了该方法的广泛采用。所以国内目前只是在一些中小型的污水处理工程中采用了二氧化氯消毒工艺。
    综合上述,几种消毒方式目前在国内均有运用。由于液氯消毒运行费用低, 操作简单, 主要运用于大型污水处理行业。中小型污水处理厂主要采用二氧化氯和紫外线消毒, 但由于紫外线消毒效果不稳定, 且设备维护费用较高等因素, 二氧化氯消毒在中小型污水处理厂中运用越来越广泛。臭氧消毒主要运用于中水处理, 具有较强的消毒效果及脱色效果, 同时再辅以加氯消毒, 以保证出水中余氯要求。



       Water sterilization equipment currently has three kinds of equipment, ozone, UV and chlorine dioxide are sterilization equipment. Among them, the principle of ozone sterilization is the ozone (O3) is an oxygen (O2) allotropes, pure O3 under normal temperature and pressure for the blue gas. Ozone has strong oxidation ability (after fluoride), can oxidize most organic matter. The process of ozone sterilization is a physical, chemical and biological reaction. Ozone sterilization has the following three functions: A. ozone oxidation decomposition bacteria oxidize glucose enzymes essential for bacterial inactivation of death, so that. B. direct interaction with bacteria, virus, cell wall disruption, their DNA and RNA, the bacterial The new supersedes the old. damage, cause of death (DNA RNA; RNA - dna. The virus is composed of protein wrapped a molecule of nucleic acid; virus containing only one kind of nucleic acid). C. osmotic membrane organization, intrusion effect within the cell membrane in the outer membrane lipoprotein and internal LPS, make the bacteria through distortion, dissolve dead. Therefore, O3 is capable of removing algae sterilization, virus, such as Bacillus active microorganisms can also play a very good role in the inactivation. Ozone is a strong oxidizing agent, it has the advantages of high efficiency, no two pollution, can oxidize organic compounds, and can remove color, smell, taste and other characteristics, can be iron, manganese and other substances, often think that oxidative capacity which is 600 times higher than Cl ~ 3000 times, and the contact time is short, in addition to effect of killing bacteria, also has the very big killing effect on various viruses and spores and other Hardy creature. Ozone sterilization is not affected by NH3 and pH in the sewage, and the final product is carbon dioxide and water, do not produce carcinogenic substances.

       Ultraviolet sterilization is a physical method of disinfection, ultraviolet disinfection is not to kill microorganisms, but removed its ability to reproduce inactivated. The principle of UV disinfection is mainly nucleic acid by ultraviolet light to destroy microorganisms (DNA or RNA), so that it can't replicate. In addition, ultraviolet radiation can also cause other damage to the structure of the microbial. Ultraviolet ray is a wavelength range of 136 nm ~ 400 nm is not visible light. In the band near 260 nm has been proved to be the highest efficiency of sterilization, ultraviolet light currently producing maximum power output at the wavelength of 253.7 nm. The wavelength output in the current world top ultraviolet lamp in UV energy accounted for 90%, 30% of total energy, because the UV C band high strength, high efficiency exists, ultraviolet technology has become a very competitive water disinfection technology field. Ultraviolet sewage disinfection technology is now widely used in various types of urban sewage disinfection treatment, including low quality sewage, conventional two stage biochemical sewage after treatment, combined sewer overflow wastewater and reclaimed water disinfection. In addition to having no chemical addition, did not increase water smell and taste, no by-products, toxic and harmful disinfection speed, high efficiency, equipment operation than the traditional disinfection process simple and safe and the advantages of automation ultraviolet disinfection, operation, management, service and maintenance costs are also low, in recent 20 years to get the extensive application gradually. UV disinfection technology penetration quality is low is not applicable to UV, such as untreated or only after primary treatment of sewage, SS higher than 30 m g /L wastewater. This situation using the ultraviolet ray disinfection way not only can increase energy consumption, but also cause the disinfection effect is not good. The two level of sewage treatment and reclaimed water, ultraviolet penetration rate is generally 40% ~ 80%, using ultraviolet disinfection method is a good choice. But the ultraviolet disinfection method can't provide the sterilization ability of surplus, after leaving the reactor for water treatment, some by ultraviolet killing microorganisms in the photoreactivation molecular mechanism that DNA will repair the damage, so that bacteria regeneration. 

       Chlorine dioxide in water solubility is 5 times of chlorine, chlorine oxidation capacity is about 2.5 times, it is a strong oxidizing agent. Soluble in water is safe, the chlorine disinfection is internationally recognized as the only efficient disinfectant. Chlorine dioxide unstable nature, can only use chlorine dioxide generator site preparation. For there are two main types of small chemical method chlorine dioxide generator water treatment field: compound chlorine dioxide generator with sodium chlorate, hydrochloric acid as raw material and pure chlorine dioxide generator using sodium chlorite, hydrochloric acid as raw materials, of which the former is the most widely used chlorine dioxide disinfection characteristic is only not oxidation, chlorination, and so it generally does not produce carcinogenic substances. The disinfection effect of chlorine dioxide and chlorine is quite high, but when the NH3 concentration of N in wastewater, the chlorine consumption will increase by a large margin, but chlorine dioxide as reacting with NH3, so the dosage does not increase. In addition, chlorine dioxide disinfection is not affected by pH interference. Chlorine dioxide is unstable and explosive, so it must be in the field of manufacturing, for immediate use. Preparation of chlorine containing low chlorine dioxide is complex, and the raw material (NaClO2) price than other disinfection methods widely used in the high limit of the method. So the domestic at present only in some small sewage treatment engineering used in the chlorine dioxide disinfection process.

       Integrated afore-mentioned, several kinds of disinfection methods currently used in both domestic and. Because the liquid chlorine disinfection low operation cost, simple operation, mainly used in large-scale sewage treatment industry. Small and medium sized sewage treatment plant mainly by chlorine dioxide and ultraviolet disinfection, but because of the effect of ultraviolet disinfection is not stable, and the equipment maintenance cost is higher factors of chlorine dioxide disinfection in wastewater treatment plant using more and more widely. Ozone sterilization is mainly used in water treatment, with disinfection effect and strong decolorization effect, at the same time, supplemented by chlorination, chlorine in water to ensure the requirements.


      








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